Introduction to Chlorella:
About 70% of the earth's surface is covered by seas, which also support a vast diversity of aquatic organisms, plants, and microalgae. Microalgae stand out among these because they make up the base of the aquatic food chain and give many animals in the aquatic environment their source of oxygen. The reality that cyanobacteria were the first organisms to produce oxygen on earth indicates that they are also the oldest living species on the planet (Saad 2014). For CO2 bio-fixation, many microalgae have been used. Compared to other CO2 removal techniques, CO2 fixation by microalgal species is more environmental friendly and sustainable. A rich and vital source of supply for compounds like proteins, PUFA, polysaccharides, and photosynthetic pigments is provided by these microbes (Hopkinson 2011).
Microalgae played a significant role in the development of early civilizations. The Chinese used the microalgae Nostac to escape the famine, which was first documented about 2000 years ago. Chlorella is a freshwater, unicellular, green algae that is a member of the Chlorellaceae family. Its name is a combination of the Latin suffix "ella," which means little, and the Greek word "chloros," which means green. Chlorella cells are 2 to 8 microns thick and lack flagella. Chlorella is the most abundant source of chlorophyll since it contains both chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b, two green photosynthetic pigments. Chlorella contains 9–18% dietary fibre, 1-4% chlorophyll, 55–60% protein, vitamins, and minerals (Rani 2018).
Due to its rapid growth, high lipid content, and high nutritional value (including protein, carbs, vitamins, minerals, and carotenoids), Chlorella vulgaris is among the rare microalgae that is used in the generation of energy (biofuel) as well as in human health (Josephine 2015) (Panahi 2016). It has been established that the bioactive substances found in C. vulgaris have a variety of biopharmacological uses. Algal polysaccharides, for instance, have numerous commercial uses because of their rheological characteristics, such as thickening or gelling, and algal-derived carbohydrates are said to have a high level of digestibility for food and animal feed. Algal oils, particularly those in the omega-3 and omega-6 families, have drawn attention as a result of their positive effects on both health and nutrition. The carotenoids found in algae have vast potential as anti-oxidants (Fiedor 2014), as well as therapeutic agents for boosting immunity and preventing conditions like lung cancer, cataracts, macular degeneration, and cardiovascular illnesses (Di Pietro 2016). Additionally, since these microorganisms are essential to the aquatic food chain, the lipids and pigments from marine microalgae are utilised in the field of aquaculture (Anthony 2018).
About Chlorella Growth Factor (CGF):
The chlorella nucleus contains a special nutritional combination called Chlorella Growth Factor. As a result of photosynthesis, chlorella cells quickly divide into four new cells every 20 hours. In humans, this fast rate of CGF development aids in the repair of injured cells and reduces the ageing process.
Many researchers and scientists have found that CGF, a water-soluble extract from Chlorella, stimulates the growth of animals and microorganisms. CGF contains sulphur, glycoprotein, nucleic acid-polysaccharides, nucleotide-peptides, and other nutrients that are essential for the body's development, immunity, and other health advantages. Numerous scientists, academics, and doctors continue to study its scientific and distinct component structure, which is drawing attention from a wide audience worldwide. Only Chlorella, a green single-celled micro-algae contains CGF (Bite 2020).
History of Chlorella and Chlorella Growth Factor (CGF):
Chlorella vulgaris has received the most attention thus far among the many species that have been found. M.J. Beijerinck, a Dutch microbiologist, grew Chlorella vulgaris in 1890 that was the first algal culture to be reported as being scientifically pure. Otto Warburg began using chlorella to research plant physiology in 1919, and he presented reports about his findings. After conducting years of in-depth study on microalgae, scientists from all over the world believed that because microalgae are so abundant in nutrients, their mass production could change agriculture for many more years to come. Eighty patients in a Venezuelan leper treatment colony received concentrated Chlorella soup in the 1940s from two researchers named Jorgensen and Convit. The first solid scientific proof of the potential of microalgae as a health supplement was the recovery in the patients' physical health. The Japanese were in the forefront of research on chlorella as a food resource in the early 1950s. As a result, the usage of chlorella as a supplement increased dramatically in Japan (Rani 2018).
CGF (Chlorella Growth Factor): Dr. Fujimake of the People's Scientific Research Center in Tokyo used electrophoresis in the 1950s to segregate a substance from an extract of hot water of chlorella. He discovered that hot water extract encouraged both young animals and human children to grow healthily. The chlorella growth factor was given its name as a result of its growth-promoting property that was discovered in the initial research with chlorella extract (CGF).
Later research revealed that CGF also acts as a potent natural immune booster in addition to its growth-promoting effects. The primary components of CGF are nucleic acid derivatives including RNA and DNA, along with unidentified amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. . DNA levels can be as high as 3% and RNA levels as high as 10% in chlorella. The amino acid combinations in CGF, after being digested and assimilated, immediately give the "Building blocks" for the repair of your natural genetic information. CGF does not directly change your own DNA and RNA. Therefore, when we consume chlorella, we also consume all the additional nutrients necessary for chlorella's reproductive growth and the preservation of its life cycle in addition to the nucleic acids produced as a response of its fast growth. We are consuming the entire meal. No other plant or substance on earth has the capacity to quadruple in size every 20 hours like Chlorella does thanks to CGF.
Benefits of CGF:
Increase Blood Count and Cell Renewal:
Chlorella reproduces in an asexual manner. Each day, it divides into four cells, which develop through the photosynthesis mechanism in freshwater using solar energy and carbon dioxide. Theoretically, it might grow with such vigour that it would cover the entire planet in 63 days. By using its photosynthetic process, chlorella may produce 50 times more food than other grains.
The size of chlorella cells is roughly identical to that of a human red blood cell, and they contain nucleic acids that support our DNA and RNA. It can live independently thanks to its own organs and mechanisms. Gamma rays and antibiotics are frequently used to treat cancer. The quantity of white blood cells is frequently decreased by the negative effects of these medications. According to clinical trial research, using CGF along with antibiotics and radiation therapy decreased the loss of white blood cells and enhanced blood counts and recovery times (Machmud 2020)
Athletes who sustain injuries are frequently given CGF to hasten the healing process and tissue repairs. But because children frequently have accidents and injured themselves, CGF aids in the recovery of the tissues that are harmed (Machmud 2020).
Clinical trials have found that supplementing with chlorella increases the activity of wound healing. Chlorella may also help with tissue healing, which could speed up the recovery process after exercise and exertion. Additionally, chlorella growth factor has been discovered to be a fairly effective anti-inflammatory (De Melo 2019). Studies have demonstrated that chlorella has potent inhibitory effects on a number of enzymes associated with the inflammatory phase (e.g. human protein tyrosine phosphatases).
Chlorella is renowned for being a superior immune response stimulant. CGF is well acknowledged in the scientific field of Japan as a biological response modulator. Colony forming units (CFU) can be increased by CGF, and it also boosts the body's synthesis of gamma-interferon, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukins (IL). A molecule made by immune cells called gamma-interferon triggers NK cells to target tumour cells and defend the body against infections. While ILs are leukocyte messengers that aid in the fighting with cancers and viruses, TNF kills tumour cells and slows the proliferation of parasites and viruses. By raising interferon levels, chlorella enhances the activity of T-cells and macrophages, improving the immunity system's capacity to fight infections and invading proteins. Thus, it would seem that Chlorella's cell wall has the potential to combat cancer cells by inducing the synthesis of interferon through its complex polysaccharides (Kang 2013).
Beta-glucan polysaccharide molecules found in chlorella growth factor have good impacts on the immune system by enhancing it and protecting it from hazardous microorganisms (Kim 2011). As levels of nucleic acids fall with age, the body's capacity for cell regeneration, growth, and repair decreases, leading to decreased immunity and early ageing. The nucleic acid in CGF may support healthy immunity by promoting the growth of T and B cells, which defend humans against pathogens and viruses.
In 51 healthy people, consuming 5g of chlorella supplement every day for eight weeks raised levels of immunity proteins that defend from germs, according to a Korean research reported in the Nutrition Journal (Kwak 2012). In another clinical research trial, 15 men who took a multicomponent supplement made from chlorella for four weeks showed better immune system function (Otsuki 2011).
Assistance for Allergies:
According to research done on animals, CGF inhibits the overproduction of IgE that occurs during allergic reactions, preventing allergies as a result. Researchers in Japan discovered in 1997 that supplementing with chlorella (3–5 grammes) helped youngsters with atopic dermatitis. In addition, allergies, indigestion to eggs and milk, and infantile bronchial asthma have all been proven to be improved by chlorella. Chlorella has many antioxidants that quench free radicals and lessen their impact on allergies (EARTH, 2016).
Rapid ageing effects are associated with declining nucleic acid levels, as well as cellular regrowth and repairs, along with increased age. By encouraging quick cellular regeneration, eating foods rich in nucleic acids like chlorella growth factor may slow down the ageing process. It might lessen the likelihood that some chronic degenerative disorders can develop. It was formerly believed that canned sardines were the best source of nucleic acids, however chlorella has five times the amount of RNA. Additionally, the antioxidants in CGF might lessen free radical damage and aid in promoting anti-aging effects (Bito 2020).
Stimulates Wound Healing:
When used topically, chlorella promotes the healing of wounds and burns. This is achieved by the abundance of CGF and chlorophyll, which when applied directly, cleanse and quicken the recovery of burns and wounds. In addition, CGF increases the creation of fibroblasts, which aid in the body's ability to heal wounds, which promotes the healing of diabetic skin ulcers. Regularly consuming chlorella over an extended period of time will improve the body's capacity to treat wounds internally rather than outwardly. When patients used oral doses of Chlorella and CGF, numerous Japanese doctors demonstrated that ulcers quickly recovered and wounds that had not responded to numerous drugs and therapies eventually did. According to additional research, CGF encourages both plant and animal cells to divide more quickly, which has been shown to accelerate recovery (Machmud 2020)
CGF for Skin:
Reduced collagen formation, which reduces skin elasticity and various enzymatic functions, is a biological factor in the ageing of the skin (Kim 2017). In order to maintain healthy skin, it is crucial to maintain dermal collagen levels. The dermal fibroblasts that make up the extracellular matrix (ECM) produce collagen. Collagen comes in a variety of forms and makes up 80–90% of the dermis (Yoon 2012). The most important protein in skin connective tissue, type I collagen, which makes up 85% of all collagen, gives the skin tension, elasticity, and flexibility. Another crucial collagen in the skin is type III collagen. Age-related changes in the body's biochemistry, along with a rise in certain enzymes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMPS) and a decline in collagen levels in the extracellular matrix, impair the elasticity of the skin (Kim 2017).
According to recent research, marine resources, particularly marine algae, are a valuable source of biological compounds with a variety of bioactive properties (Berthon 2017). For instance, Chlorella vulgaris, a green microalga, is a common food additive, colourant, and food emulsion on the market. Chlorella growth factor (CGF) is a specialised collection of compounds found in the chlorella nucleus. It is abundant in polysaccharides, minerals, peptides, vitamins, amino acids, and nucleic acids (RNA and DNA). According to reports, CGF from chlorella acts on the epidermis to eliminate vascular imperfections, promoting collagen production and preventing wrinkle formation (Berthon 2017). Additionally, the algae chlorella includes -1, 3 -glucan, a free radical scavenger.
Collagen class I and class III mRNA expression is increased by CGF. These findings suggested that CG F encourages the synthesis of collagen. Given that type I collagen is the primary structural element of the extracellular matrix, the favourable impact of CGF on type collagen formation may be linked to its anti-aging properties. In a study, the CGF extract from C. vulgaris worked as an anti-aging factor by controlling the expression of genes linked to skin ageing, such collagen. The results of the investigations have shown that C. vulgaris can be successfully produced with ultrasonication and enzymatic hydrolysis (Abdolbaghian 2021).
BioGenesis Chlorella is organically grown in the pristine Great Barrier Reef region of northern Australia. Bathed in golden sunshine the Chlorella thrive in the fresh spring water ponds. We have developed an innovative advanced energy efficient hydrodynamic growth system that replicates a natural river flow. When harvested we apply an advanced biodynamic technology to gently crack the hard outer cell wall making the nutrients fully available.